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Day 1 16:15 Panel 8

Technology and Power

Coleridge Room

Ye Ying, Steven Hai Jiawei, Anahit Parzyan

Ye Ying

Durham university, Year 1 PhD in Law Studies

Copyright protection of AI-generated works: take Chinese copyright legal system as perspective

The artificial intelligence (AI) is promoting a new scientific technology development, which is affecting various aspects of the society in China. The recent achievements of the AI technology show that it can carry on creative activities in various fields, including the creation of artistic works, such as the poster designer ‘Lu Ban(鹿班)’, the poetry writer ‘Xiao Bin(小冰)’, and the painter ‘Dao Zi(道子)’. The emergence of automatic creation with AI technology has attracted many attentions. When a number of AI-generated works are increasing in the market, people start to think whether AI-generated content can be considered as works? And who should own the copyright of AI-generated works?

As for Chinese copyright legal system, unlike the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 of UK, it has no provision directly regulating computer-generated works. The definition of works in China requires a certain degree of originality. The link between the identity of the author and the identification of the work is reduced, and the standard is more objective. As for the ownership of AI-generated works, some existing systems such as ‘commissioned work’ and ‘service work’ leave an explanation space for the ownership of the artificial intelligence work. Therefore, the AI-generated content should be considered as works and the copyright of AI-generated content should be attributed to the designer or the owner of the AI program in China.

Steven Hai Jiawei

King's College London, Year 1 PhD in Chinese Studies

We Shall Tango in Techno Music: Institutional Global Outsourcing on Digital Governance in China

Since the very beginning of the 21st century, the progressive advancement of information and Internet technologies has started to increasingly empower the digital governance of Chinese government, especially in the practices of the public administration and civil service. Previous scholarship tends to shed light on how the government practice has influenced the digital governance, and how the shifting dynamic of institutional empowerment has evolved within the hierarchical system in Chin. However, there remain insufficient studies on the government’s acquiring and establishing mechanisms of how digital governance in China have been adopted and developed, from a broader perspective of institutional outsourcing from global high-tech firms. With the Chinese government engaged in the incrementally complicated socio-political and economic phenomenon, emerging challenges have been raising new questions for the government’s capability. The digital governance, in response to the rising demands, would inevitably seek techniques and assistance from the global high-tech firms, regarding the informational application, communicational invention and technological consultation. The global institutional outsourcing for digital governance functioning, de facto, provides the high-tech firms and the market force, opportunities to participate and even integrate with the gigantic state machine in multidimensional levels. Meanwhile, the integration process has also posed new challenges to regulatory policies and the regulatory system. Through a mix-method approach, the paper endeavors to explore the dynamic interaction within the global institutional outsourcing process. By taking analyzing into the central government’s prospectus on the development and reform of digital governance, government procurement plans on digital governance, and the latest trend of digital governance from the mobile-device-based application, the research aims to fathom the emerging dynamic interaction between the broader state-society relationships. Moreover, through a globalization-embedded China case, to further examine the learning mechanism, innovation curve, and underlying challenges on the evolution of the authoritarianism in the global new era.

Anahit Parzyan

China-Eurasia Council for Political and Strategic Research

China’s Cyber Policy: Empowering Capabilities for Global Cyber Leadership

This article aims to observe China’s policy on cybersecurity under Xi Jinping’s administration and his strategy to turn China into a “Cyber superpower”. The article investigates China’s policy on Internet governance from the prism of cyber-sovereignty and analyses its consequences with China’s foreign diplomacy on Cybersecurity globally. The paper answers to the following questions: Which are the peculiarities of China’s cyber policy for maintaining global leadership in cyberspace? Which were the China’s main tools for implementing its cyber policy on a system-level? What are the consequences of different sanctions and restrictions on Chinese technological companies over surveillance with the role of China as one of global cyber leaders? The research got conclusions based on historical documents, policy papers to analyze domestic cyber policy of China as well as its correlation with China’s cyber diplomacy on an International arena. Judging from the domestic cyber policy of Xi’s China with its outstanding budget, technical advantage and active international importance on cyberspace governance issues, the study concludes that China is implementing strongly focused cyber policy to be one of the main leaders on a new, human-developed sphere. The study provides with valuable recommendations for arbitration and leadership in cyberspace and finds that China can maintain global cyber leadership through UN Security Council which can serve as an inclusive platform for balancing current cyber (dis)order.

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